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Result : Searchterm 'Parallel Imaging Technique' found in 1 term [] and 11 definitions [], (+ 6 Boolean[] results
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Parallel Imaging TechniqueForum -
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In parallel MR imaging, a reduced data set in the phase encoding direction(s) of k-space is acquired to shorten acquisition time, combining the signal of several coil arrays. The spatial information related to the phased array coil elements is utilized for reducing the amount of conventional Fourier encoding.
First, low-resolution, fully Fourier-encoded reference images are required for sensitivity assessment. Parallel imaging reconstruction in the Cartesian case is efficiently performed by creating one aliased image for each array element using discrete Fourier transformation. The next step then is to create an full FOV image from the set of intermediate images. Parallel reconstruction techniques can be used to improve the image quality with increased signal to noise ratio, spatial resolution, reduced artifacts, and the temporal resolution in dynamic MRI scans.
Parallel imaging algorithms can be divided into 2 main groups:
Image reconstruction produced by each coil (reconstruction in the image domain, after Fourier transform): SENSE (Sensitivity Encoding), PILS (Partially Parallel Imaging with Localized Sensitivity), ASSET.
Reconstruction of the Fourier plane of images from the frequency signals of each coil (reconstruction in the frequency domain, before Fourier transform): GRAPPA.
Additional techniques include SMASH, SPEEDER™, IPAT (Integrated Parallel Acquisition Techniques - derived of GRAPPA a k-space based technique) and mSENSE (an image based enhanced version of SENSE).
 
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    • Fourier Transformation
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    • Generalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisition
    • Duty Cycle
    • Lung Imaging
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Parallel MRI Using Multiple Receiver Coils
   by www-math.mit.edu    
Coil Arrays for Parallel MRI: Introduction and Overview.
   by www.mr.ethz.ch    
  News & More:
The Effects of Breathing Motion on DCE-MRI Images: Phantom Studies Simulating Respiratory Motion to Compare CAIPIRINHA-VIBE, Radial-VIBE, and Conventional VIBE
Tuesday, 7 February 2017   by www.kjronline.org    
Implementation of Dual-Source RF Excitation in 3 T MR-Scanners Allows for Nearly Identical ADC Values Compared to 1.5 T MR Scanners in the Abdomen
Wednesday, 29 February 2012   by www.plosone.org    
Clinical evaluation of a speed optimized T2 weighted fast spin echo sequence at 3.0 T using variable flip angle refocusing, half-Fourier acquisition and parallel imaging
Wednesday, 25 October 2006
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Duty Cycle
 
Duty cycle is the time during which the gradient system can be run at maximum power. The duty cycle is based on the total time and includes the cool down phase. The duty cycle on the RF pulse during MRI is restricted based on the specific absorption rate (SAR) limit.
SAR limits restrict radio frequency heating effects. The specific absorption rate increases with field strength, radio frequency power and duty cycle, type of the transmitter coil and body size. The especially in high and ultrahigh magnetic fields, important SAR issue can be readily addressed by reducing the RF duty cycle due to longer repetition times (TR) and the use of parallel imaging techniques. A TR longer than the minimum needed provides time for the tissue to cool down, but for the cost of a longer scan time. A parallel imaging technique reduces the RF exposure and the scan time.
See also High Field MRI (3 tesla 3T).
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MRI Resources 
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Generalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel AcquisitionInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(GRAPPA) GRAPPA is a parallel imaging technique to speed up MRI pulse sequences. The Fourier plane of the image is reconstructed from the frequency signals of each coil (reconstruction in the frequency domain).
Parallel imaging techniques like GRAPPA, auto-SMASH and VD-AUTO-SMASH are second and third generation algorithms using k-space undersampling. A model from a part of the center of k-space is acquired, to find the coefficients of the signals from each coil element, and to reconstruct the missing intermediary lines. The acquisition of these additional lines is a form of self-calibration, which lengthens the overall short scan time. The acquisition of these k-space lines provides mapping of the whole field as well as data for the image contrast.
Algorithms of the GRAPPA type work better than the SENSE type in heterogeneous body parts like thoracic or abdominal imaging, or in pulse sequences like echo planar imaging. This is caused by differences between the sensitivity map and the pulse sequence (e.g. artifacts) or an unreliable sensitivity map.
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Lung ImagingMRI Resource Directory:
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Lung imaging is furthermore a challenge in MRI because of the predominance of air within the lungs and associated susceptibility issues as well as low signal to noise of the inflated lung parenchyma. Cardiac and respiratory triggered or breath hold sequences allow diagnostic imaging, however a comparable image quality with computed tomography is still difficult to achieve.
Assumptions for lung MRI:
Low signal to noise ratio of the inherently low lung proton density.
Cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts.
Magnetic susceptibility effects of large magnetic field gradients.
Very short transverse relaxation times and significant diffusion yielding short T2 (30-70 msec), short T2* (1-3 msec), and additional long T1 relaxation times (1300-1500 msec).
The extreme short T2 values are responsible for a fast signal decay during a single shot readout, resulting in blurring.
The current trends in MRI are the use of new imaging technologies and increasingly powerful magnetic fields. Among these technologies are parallel imaging techniques as well as ventilation agents like hyperpolarized helium for the use as an inert inhalational contrast agent to study lung ventilation properties. With hyperpolarized gases clear images of the lungs can be obtained without using a large magnetic field (see also back projection imaging). Single shot sequences (e.g. TSE or Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo HASTE) used in lung MR imaging benefits from parallel imaging techniques due to reduced relaxation time effects during the echo train and therefore reduced image blurring as well as reduced motion artifacts.
In the future, more effective contrast agents may provide an alternative solution to the need for high field MRI. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI perfusion has demonstrated a potential in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or to characterize lung cancer and mediastinal tumors. 3D contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the thoracic vessel.

See also the related poll result: 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Anatomic Imaging of the Lungs  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Normal Lung Gd Perfusion MRI  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 MRI Thorax Basal Plane  Open this link in a new window
 
Radiology-tip.comLung Scintigraphy
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
A safer approach for diagnostic medical imaging
Monday, 29 September 2014   by www.eurekalert.org    
Detection of Pulmonary tuberculosis: comparing MR imaging with HRCT
Friday, 16 September 2011   by 7thspace.com    
Parallel Lung Imaging(.pdf)
Low-Field MRI of Laser Polarized Noble Gas
   by xenon.unh.edu    
  News & More:
New MRI Approach Reveals Bronchiectasis' Key Features Within the Lung
Thursday, 13 November 2014   by lungdiseasenews.com    
Researchers Review Importance of Non-Invasive Imaging in Diagnosis and Management of PAH
Wednesday, 11 March 2015   by lungdiseasenews.com    
Functional imaging with diffusion-weighted MRI for lung biopsy planning: initial experience
Thursday, 10 July 2014   by 7thspace.com    
MRI techniques improve pulmonary embolism detection
Monday, 19 March 2012   by medicalxpress.com    
MRI Resources 
MRI Physics - RIS - Abdominal Imaging - Blood Flow Imaging - Movies - Colonography
 
Array Spatial Sensitivity Encoding TechniqueInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(ASSETT) ASSET is a parallel imaging technique of the SENSE type (image domain reconstruction).
Each coil element is sensitivity encoded and the covered spatial zone is mapped. By reducing the field of view in the phase encoding gradient direction the scan time decreases, but this images of each coil element contain foldover artifacts. The sensitivity profiles of the elements are used to calculate unfolded images.
See also Sensitivity Encoding, Generalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisition.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Scanning the Abdomen
   by www.mrprotocols.com    
MRI Resources 
Claustrophobia - Pediatric and Fetal MRI - Online Books - Safety Products - Contrast Agents - Libraries
 
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