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MRI Resources 
Cochlear Implant - MRI Reimbursement - Pathology - Process Analysis - Databases - Knee MRI
 
Abdominal ImagingMRI Resource Directory:
 - Abdominal Imaging -
 
General MRI of the abdomen can consist of T1 or T2 weighted spin echo, fast spin echo (FSE, TSE) or gradient echo sequences with fat suppression and contrast enhanced MRI techniques. The examined organs include liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, adrenals as well as parts of the stomach and intestine (see also gastrointestinal imaging). Respiratory compensation and breath hold imaging is mandatory for a good image quality.
T1 weighted sequences are more sensitive for lesion detection than T2 weighted sequences at 0.5 T, while higher field strengths (greater than 1.0 T), T2 weighted and spoiled gradient echo sequences are used for focal lesion detection. Gradient echo in phase T1 breath hold can be performed as a dynamic series with the ability to visualize the blood distribution. Phases of contrast enhancement include the capillary or arterial dominant phase for demonstrating hypervascular lesions, in liver imaging the portal venous phase demonstrates the maximum difference between the liver and hypovascular lesions, while the equilibrium phase demonstrates interstitial disbursement for edematous and malignant tissues.
Out of phase gradient echo imaging for the abdomen is a lipid-type tissue sensitive sequence and is useful for the visualization of focal hepatic lesions, fatty liver (see also Dixon), hemochromatosis, adrenal lesions and renal masses. The standards for abdominal MRI vary according to clinical sites based on sequence availability and MRI equipment. Specific abdominal imaging coils and liver-specific contrast agents targeted to the healthy liver tissue improve the detection and localization of lesions.
See also Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents, Reticuloendothelial Contrast Agents, and Oral Contrast Agents.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Abdominal Ultrasound at US-TIP.com.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 MR Colonography Gadolinium per Rectum  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Anatomic Imaging of the Liver  Open this link in a new window
      

 CE MRA of the Aorta  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
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• View the NEWS results for 'Abdominal Imaging' (3).Open this link in a new window.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Abdominal Imaging' (11).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Abdominal MRI at 3.0 T: The Basics Revisited
Wednesday, 20 July 2005   by www.ajronline.org    
Usefulness of MR Imaging for Diseases of the Small Intestine: Comparison with CT
2000   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF FOCAL LIVER LESIONS(.pdf)
2002
  News & More:
Nottingham scientists exploit MRI technology to assist in the treatment of IBS
Thursday, 9 January 2014   by www.news-medical.net    
MRI identifies 'hidden' fat that puts adolescents at risk for disease
Tuesday, 27 February 2007   by www.eurekalert.org    
New MR sequence helps radiologists more accurately evaluate abnormalities of the uterus and ovaries
Thursday, 23 April 2009   by www.eurekalert.org    
Abdoscan®InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Characteristics, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
 
This superparamagnetic oral contrast agent consists of large iron oxide particles, coated with insoluble material. Abdoscan® particles have a mean diameter no less than 300 nm. Gastrointestinal superparamagnetic contrast agents are used for negative bowel enhancement.

Abdoscan® was approved in Europe but was taken off the market in 2000, and all sales stopped by the end of 2002.
Drug Information and Specification
NAME OF COMPOUND Ferristene (USAN) oral magnetic particles (OMP)
DEVELOPER Amersham
CENTRAL MOIETY Fe2+/Fe3+
CONTRAST EFFECT T2*, predominantly negative enhancement
RELAXIVITY T2
PHARMACOKINETIC Gastrointestinal
CONCENTRATION 23.4 Fe/200ml
PREPARATION Dissolve
INDICATION Bowel marking
DEVELOPMENT STAGE Not FDA approved
PRESENTATION Bags with powder
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Abdoscan®' (2).Open this link in a new window

MRI Resources 
Case Studies - Devices - Non-English - Guidance - Contrast Agents - Research Labs
 
ABLAVAR™InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Characteristics, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
ABLAVAR™ (formerly named Vasovist™) is a blood pool agent for magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), which opens new medical imaging possibilities in the evaluation of aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) in patients with suspected peripheral vascular disease.
ABLAVAR™ binds reversibly to blood albumin, providing imaging with high spatial resolution up to 1 hour after injection, due to its high relaxivity and to the long lasting increased signal intensity of blood.
As with other contrast media: the possibility of serious or life-threatening anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, including cardiovascular, respiratory and/or cutaneous manifestations, should always be considered.
WARNING: NEPHROGENIC SYSTEMIC FIBROSIS Gadolinium-based contrast agents increase the risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with acute or chronic severe renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73m2), or acute renal insufficiency of any severity due to the hepato-renal syndrome or in the perioperative liver transplantation period.
See also Cardiovascular Imaging, Adverse Reaction, Molecular Imaging, and MRI Safety.

Drug Information and Specification
NAME OF COMPOUND Diphenylcyclohexyl phosphodiester-Gd-DTPA, gadofosveset trisodium, MS-325
DEVELOPER EPIX Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
CENTRAL MOIETY Gd2+
CONTRAST EFFECT T1, predominantly positive enhancement
RELAXIVITY 20-45 mmol-1sec-1, Bo=0,47T
PHARMACOKINETIC Intravascular
OSMOLALITY 825 mOsmol/kg H2O
CONCENTRATION 244 mg/mL, 0.25mmol/mL
DOSAGE 0.12 mL/kg, 0.03 mmol/kg
PREPARATION ready to use
INDICATION Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography
DEVELOPMENT STAGE FDA approved
DISTRIBUTOR See below
PRESENTATION 10 mL vials
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT!

Distribution Information
TERRITORY TRADE NAME DEVELOPMENT
STAGE
DISTRIBUTOR
EU Vasovist® Approved ?
USA, Canada, Australia ABLAVAR™ Approved Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc.

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• View the NEWS results for 'ABLAVAR™' (1).Open this link in a new window.

• View the DATABASE results for 'ABLAVAR™' (3).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Ablavar Prescribing Information
   by www.ablavar.com    
Absolute Zero
 
The lowest possible temperature that can be obtained, at which all molecular motion discontinues. The unit is written as 0 K or 0 Kelvin, named after William Thomson, who developed the scale and became Lord Kelvin in 1892.
The analogous temperature in other units is:
-273.16° Celsius
-459.69° Fahrenheit
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Absolute Zero' (6).Open this link in a new window

Absorbed Dose
 
This dose means the RF power absorbed per unit of mass of an object, and is measured in watts per kilogram (W/kg).
The absorbed dose is dependent on the duty cycle and transmitter-coil type and increases with field strength, radio frequency power and and body size.
The specific absorption rate (SAR) describes the potential for heating of the patient's tissue due to the application of the RF energy necessary to produce the MR signal.
See also Specific Absorption Rate, MRI Safety, and MRI Risks.
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Absorbed Dose' (2).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Physics of MRI Safety
   by www.aapm.org    
  News & More:
Commission delays electromagnetic fields legislation
Monday, 29 October 2007   by cordis.europa.eu:80    
MRI Resources 
Knee MRI - MR Guided Interventions - Supplies - Homepages - Stent - Calculation
 
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